We analyze the competitive effects of quantity discounts in an asymmetric duopoly. We find that for a sizeable set of parameter values, quantity discounts harm the smaller firm and reduce consumers' surplus. They can even decrease social welfare, i.e. the sum of producers' and consumers' surpluses. However, the circumstances in which quantity discounts may decrease social welfare Nike Free Run 2 Black
are limited and difficult to identify in practice.
A computerized system for the automatic analysis of thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves and their derivatives is presented. The system is based in the handling, by software, of the digitized TL glow curves in a personal computer in order to obtain the first and higher-order derivatives, enabling one to evaluate specific TL peaks. Also, the linearity of the system is analyzed with the aim of obtaining an accurate dose estimation from the system.
Omnidirectional total reflectors based on one-dimensional dielectric and magnetic photonic crystals are investigated in this paper. We adopt the transmission matrix method to analyze the transmission properties of such reflectors and use the decimal genetic algorithm to obtain broad omnidirectional total reflection (ODTR) bandwidth. Finally, an omnidirectional total reflector with very broad ODTR bandwidth of 1.34ω0 is achieved.
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